6 Maret 2012

Ragam Kuliner Khas Perancis

Abad ke-15 sampai 19

Marie-Antoine Carême, pencipta haute cuisine.

Perancis memiliki sejarah kuliner yang panjang. Pada abad ke-15, catherine de medici dari italia pindah ke perancis untuk menikahi henry duc d’orleans (bakal raja henry ii), dengan membawa buku-buku masak firenze yang berisi resep-resep masakan italia. Pada saat itu, perancis belum dikenal akan tradisi kulinernya. Catherine membawa para ahli masak dari italia dan memperkenalkan banyak jenis masakan, cara penyajian dan aturan persiapan makan malam ke perancis. Dalam tahun-tahun berikutnya, bangsa perancis mulai menciptakan masakan yang penuh warna dan cita rasa yang inovatif.walaupun saat ini perancis dan italia telah mengembangkan tradisi kuliner yang sangat berbeda, namun sebenarnya awal mula budaya kuliner perancis banyak dipengaruhi dari masa tersebut.

Pada tahun 1652, sebuah buku masak pertama perancis bernama le cuisine françois ditulis oleh koki terkenal bernama la varenne. Buku tersebut menjadi bukti bahwa tradisi kuliner perancis sudah menjadi bagian penting dalam budaya masak dan makan malam di eropa.buku itu memberikan penjelasan mengenai metode penyajian, termasuk cara membuat roux, masakan yang terbuat dari campuran tepung dan mentega untuk mengentalkan sup dan saus.sebelum roux ditemukan, cara orang perancis untuk mengentalkan sup hanya dengan mencampurkannya dengan roti.

Sampai penjara bastille dibobol pada tahun 1789, sebagian besar rakyat perancis adalah petani miskin yang mengonsumsi makanan berupa palawija. Di abad-abad berikutnya, kaum bangsawan menjadi semakin kuat, yang berimbas pada berkembangnya makanan bermutu sebagai perlambang status sosial. Pada abad ke-19, haute cuisine atau grande cuisine (masakan haute) mulai tercipta dan disajikan di rumah-rumah bangsawan namun mayoritas masyarakat masih miskin dan menderita kekurangan makanan. Chef master marie-antoine carême yang menciptakan metode kuliner haute berkontribusi dalam memopulerkan toque, topi tinggi berwarna putih yang dipakai bersama seragam chef sampai saat ini.

Abad Ke-20
Masakan Perancis mengalami perubahan besar di abad ke-20. Metode kuliner haute berkembang pesat dan dikenal akan cara penyajiannya yang rumit dan seksama. Kemunculan masakan baru (nouvelle cuisine) dimulai pada tahun 1970-an menggeser kepopuleran masakan klasik yang rumit. Ciri khas masakan baru ini adalah penggunaan saus krim dan berfokus pada rasa yang murni tanpa menggunakan banyak bahan masakan. Metode ini memengaruhi masakan Perancis sampai sekarang, yang dapat dilihat dengan cara penyajian yang lebih fleksibel dan banyak bereksperimen dengan citarasa non tradisional.

Masakan Perancis moderen berawal dari masa Perang Dunia I. Sistem transportasi yang semakin baik di paruh pertama abad ke-20 ikut memopulerkan kedua jenis kuliner kelas atas dan daerah yang sebelumnya terpisah. Pasca Perang Dunia II, industri pariwisata berkembang pesat dan menyebabkan masakan-masakan khusus telah dapat dinikmati warga dengan harga yang terjangkau.

Saat ini

Saat ini dimana saja, rakyat Perancis dapat menikmati berbagai jenis masakan apa saja. Bistro dan kafe menjamur di seluruh negeri dan warga dapat menentukan sendiri kualitas, rasa dan tampilan masakan. Sekarang banyak orang yang punya pekerjaan di kota-kota besar tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk makan siang namun mereka menikmatinya di kafetaria atau bar makanan ringan dengan memesan hamburger atau hot dog.

KATEGORI MASAKAN
Kuliner Perancis memiliki cara memasak dan penyajian yang terdiri dari beberapa kategori. Setiap dari tradisi masak ini mewakili budaya makan rakyatnya dan tiap-tiapnya memiliki pendukung dan rumah makan spesialisnya masing-masing.

Cuisine bourgeoise ("masakan klasik") adalah jenis kategori kuliner yang meliputi jenis masakan-masakan klasik yang dahulunya merupakan jenis masakan daerah. Jenis hidangan ini terlihat penuh ragam dan menggunakan banyak saus krim.


Haute cuisine atau Grande cuisine ("masakan agung") adalah jenis masakan klasik yang disajikan dengan cara yang unik dan ekstrem. Ciri khasnya adalah elegan, ramai, mewah, cenderung berat dikarenakan penggunaan krim yang banyak. Tampilan hidangan pun diperhatikan dengan cermat, misalnya sayuran harus dipotong dengan ukuran yang tepat dan seragam. Bahan-bahan yang dipergunakan merupakan yang berkualitas terbaik. Masakan jenis ini dikenal dengan harganya yang mahal.



Cuisine nouvelle ("masakan baru") adalah jenis kuliner baru yang berkembang di tahun 1970-an sebagai reaksi menentang sekolah memasak klasik. Masakan yang disajikan sederhana dan kurang ragam serta tidak menganjurkan penggunaan saus krim yang terlalu banyak.Cara penyajiannya pun tidak rumit serta lebih singkat.Bahan-bahan yang digunakan adalah khas regional dan musiman.

Cuisine du terroir adalah jenis masakan yang memfokuskan pada pengembangan sajian khas daerah. Ciri khas masakan ini adalah agak bersifat kedaerahan.Bahan-bahan yang digunakan adalah produk-produk khas lokal. Pada saat ini, Cuisine du terroir lebih banyak menarik minat warga Perancis sehingga mengalami perkembangan yang pesat.

"est particulièrement remarquable que la France soit le premier pays à être ainsi honoré pour son génie des arts de la table"
“ Sangat luar biasa bahwa Perancis adalah negara pertama yang dihargai seperti itu karena kejeniusan seni di atas meja makan ”


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